Example 3.6.  Show that the function defined by

is not differentiable at the point    even though the Cauchy-Riemann equations (3-16) are satisfied at the point  .

Explore Solution 3.6.

Solution.   We must use limits to calculate the partial derivatives at  .

,

,

,

.

Thus, we can see that

,     and     .

Hence the Cauchy-Riemann equations (3-16) hold at the point  .

We now use Equation (3-1),   ,   from Section 3.1,

and show that    is not differentiable at the point  .   We do this by choosing two paths

that go through the origin and compute the limit of the difference quotient along each path.

First, let approach    along the -axis, given by the parametric equations  ,  then

Second, let approach    along the line  ,  given by the parametric equations  ,  then

The limits along the two paths are different, so there is no possible value for the right side of Equation (3-1).

Therefore,     is not differentiable at the point   .

We are done.

Aside.  Both and can assist us in finding the partial derivatives.

Aside.  The Mathematica solution uses the commands.

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Aside.  The Maple commands are similar.

>

>

>

>

>

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>

Unfortunately, all of these partial derivatives,  ,  are not defined at the point ,  and from

the looks of these formulas there is no magical way to guess the values   .

Therefore, it is necessary to use the limit definition of partial derivatives to properly determine these values.

Aside.  Both and can assist us in finding the limits.

Aside.  The Mathematica solution uses the commands.

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This shows that   .

Thus, Mathematica has shown that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold at the origin.

Aside.  The Maple commands are similar.

>

>

>

>

>

>

This shows that   .

Thus, Maple has shown that the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold at the origin.

Now use Equation (3-1),   ,   from Section 3.1,

and show that    is not differentiable at  .

We do this by choosing two paths that go through the origin and compute the limit of the difference quotient along each path.

First, let approach    along the -axis, given by the parametric equations  .

Second, let approach    along the line  ,  given by the parametric equations  .

Aside.  The Mathematica solution uses the commands.

``````

```

```

```

```

```

```

Aside.  The Maple commands are similar.

>

>

>

>

The limits along the two paths are different, so there is no possible value for the right side of Equation (3-1).

Therefore,     is not differentiable at the point   .

We are really done.

Aside.  Figure E.6 a, shows the graphs of      for      and      for    .

The partial derivatives of  ,  for  ,  are

and     ,

and the partial derivatives of  ,  for  ,  are

and     .

Notice that at the point   ,   we have      and   ,   and these partial derivatives

appear along the edges of the surfaces for    at the point  .

Similarly,  at the point   ,   we have      and      and these partial derivatives

appear along the edges of the surfaces for    at the point  .

for  .                                           for  .
Figure E.3.6 a

for  ,                                           for  ,

at we have .                                          at we have  .
Figure E.3.6 b

for  ,                                           for  ,

at we have .                                           at we have  .
Figure E.3.6 c

For the function   we see that

and     .

Figure E.3.6

Conclusion.  This function   is a classic example of a function for which

the Cauchy-Riemann equations hold at the point  ,  yet    is not differentiable at the point  .

Remark.  In this book the use of computers is optional.

Hopefully this text will promote their use and understanding.

(c) 2011 John H. Mathews, Russell W. Howell